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Listed under:  Language  >  Language modes  >  Creating texts  >  Literary devices  >  Figures of speech  >  Allusions

'Washington, DC Government charwoman', 1942

This is a famous black-and-white anti-discrimination photograph, also widely known as 'American Gothic, Washington, DC'. It shows Mrs Ella Watson, an African American cleaner at the Treasury in Washington, USA. She is standing stiffly in front of the US flag, with a broom on one side and a mop on the other. The photograph ...

Moving Image

'Julius Caesar': justifying murder

Brutus is in a dilemma! His friend Julius Caesar is about to be crowned Emperor of Rome. However, Brutus is concerned that Caesar will become a tyrant, and he wants to do what is best for Rome. Join interviewer James Evans and actors John Bell and Hazem Shammas from Bell Shakespeare as they explore the language of this ...

Moving Image

'Julius Caesar': the adder and the ladder

Shakespeare's tragedies provide his audiences with moral dilemmas. Julius Caesar is no exception. In this soliloquy, Brutus ponders whether assassinating Julius Caesar would be in the best interests of Rome. Shakespeare's use of metaphor provides the key to understanding Brutus' motivation, convincingly brought to life ...

Interactive resource

Sea rescue: plotting the course

Help a rescue crew to reach a sinking boat. Make a chart to guide the crew. Check the meaning of symbols, place them on a map and complete a key. Mark danger spots such as an oyster bed and submerged rock. Use the map to steer a safe course.

Teacher resource

Heroic Indigenous endeavours - Teacher idea

This Teacher idea explains how TLF materials were used to encourage students to analyse and think critically about racism in different contexts. It includes a unit of work developed and trialled by a teacher.

Teacher resource

Poets paint words - Teacher idea

This Teacher idea explains how Australian paintings can be used to inspire students to write poetry as well as to develop their skills in visual literacy and oral and aural semiotic systems. It includes a unit of work developed and trialled by a teacher.

Teacher resource

Twentieth-century representations of women - Teacher idea

This Teacher idea explains how the teaching of visual literacy took place within a unit exploring the representation of women in magazines across the twentieth century. It includes a unit of work developed and trialled by a teacher.

Teacher resource

The me generation - Teacher idea

This Teacher idea explains how a focus on advertising, using examples from the present and the past, can deepen student understanding of identity, the influence of the media, body image and new technologies. It includes a unit of work developed and trialled by a teacher.


Romeo + Juliet, 1996: Capulets and Montagues

This clip shows the prologue to 'Romeo + Juliet', director Baz Luhrmann's interpretation of Shakespeare's play. Luhrmann uses the prologue to locate the action in the contemporary fictional city of Verona Beach, USA, and to introduce the feuding families - the Montagues and Capulets. A television news broadcaster, reading ...


Romeo + Juliet, 1996: A dangerous solution

This clip shows a suicidal Juliet meeting with her priest and confidante Father Laurence, who tells her his plan to prevent her marriage to Paris. Juliet is distraught because her lover Romeo has been exiled, and she turns her gun on the priest. He dissuades her, takes the gun, and persuades her to feign her own death by ...


Visual literacy - reading images

This collection contains 25 digital curriculum resources for visual analysis. They cover a range of periods and themes and are arranged in six sections: iconic images, photographs, cartoons, advertisements, posters, and paintings. These items provide opportunities to explore the codes and conventions of visual semiotics ...


Gender in advertising

This collection of 13 digital curriculum resources, including video clips and images, comprises Australian advertisements spanning 40 years from 1925 to 1966. In the advertisements for a range of predominantly domestic products, men and women are portrayed as taking on specific and distinctive roles that appear to be defined ...



This collection of 11 digital curriculum resources includes a selection of poems authored by young poets under 25 years of age, and three learning objects that explore the conventions of several poetic forms and provide opportunities for students to compose their own poems and create anthologies. The forms analysed are ...


Adolescence in Australian film

This collection of 18 digital curriculum resources explores aspects of adolescence as represented in Australian film, and comprises clips from feature films and television series. The collection is arranged according to six themes: discrimination, identity, sexuality and relationships, the future, bullying, and the desire ...

Teacher resource

Political rhetoric and propaganda - unit of work

This unit focuses on political propaganda and rhetoric used in Australia, particularly during the Second World War. It uses speeches, photos, posters and films to provide students with the opportunity to analyse the ways in which messages can be conveyed in wartime and encourages them to be more critical of the information ...

Teacher resource

Ned Kelly - hero or villain?

In this unit of work, students will use a liturgy of letters, ballads and folklore to investigate and determine whether Ned Kelly was a hero or a villain.

Teacher resource

Poets paint words - unit of work

In this unit of work students explore the concept of ekphrasis - a text-based response to a visual work of art - by reading and writing poems about particular Australian artworks.

Teacher resource

Politics with punch - unit of work

In this unit of work, students analyse the meanings and messages of different Australian political cartoons through closely examining subject, target, style, symbol, tone and captions. Students use digital and traditional learning tools to creatively and critically respond to the situations, people and events represented.

Teacher resource

Drawing the news - unit of work

In this unit of work, students identify and explain the subject, target, style, symbol, tone and captioning components of various political cartoons. They recognise points of view, themes and issues as explored by different Australian cartoonists. Students use digital and traditional learning tools to creatively and critically ...


Symbols, icons and myths in still image

This collection provides 25 examples of still images in which symbols, icons or myths play a major role in augmenting meaning. The images include paintings, drawings, postcards, cartoons, film stills and photographs. Many contain multiple symbols. The collection is organised into six categories - flags symbolising national ...