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Classroom Antarctica: breaking the ice

In this learning sequence students investigate the concept of force, simply described as a push or a pull. They find out how forces can change the shape or movement of an object and explore deformation: breaking, bending and how different materials react under different forces. Students plan and conduct a simple experiment ...

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Classroom Antarctica: natural resources and waste management

This learning sequence investigates how basic human needs are met and the natural resources that are consumed aboard an icebreaker en route to Antarctica. Students research life aboard Australia's newest icebreaker and structure research questions to guide their inquiries. They can deliver their findings as a written, ...

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Classroom Antarctica: presenting Australia's new icebreaker

In this learning sequence, students prepare informative presentations about Australia’s new Antarctic icebreaker. The presentations might be digital, video, aural, dramatic or oral. They determine the criteria of effective presentations and use these when preparing their own presentations and reflecting on the work of others. ...

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Slave decks of the bark Wildfire, 1860

This a black-and white engraving showing emaciated Africans on the slave decks of the ship Wildfire. Women are seen in the background on an upper deck, and in the foreground men and boys are crowded together. The engraving was published in Harper's Weekly on 2 June 1860. It was entitled 'The Africans of the slave bark "Wildfire." ...

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Classroom Antarctica: designing an icebreaker

In this learning sequence, students explore the science carried out on icebreakers and how icebreakers are designed. They research out how scientists and engineers use scale models, water tanks and ice tanks to design and test real ships. A final task invites students to design their own icebreaker, then test and refine ...

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Rise and fall of the Canton trade system I: China in the world, 1700-1860s

This is a collection of online materials about how trade between China and the West was systematically organised and carried out at three designated sites - Macau, Canton and Hong Kong. The vehicle for this collection is part one of a three-part illustrated essay about the rise and fall of the 'Canton trade system'. Connected ...

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Classroom Antarctica: naming the new icebreaker

In 2016, the Australian Government commissioned the design and build of a new icebreaker to support Australian research in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. A competition for Australian school students will determine the name. This learning sequence provides some background on naming conventions for ships and boats and ...

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Classroom Antarctica: travelling to Antarctica in the 20th century

This learning sequence explores the ways the design, specifications and travelling times of ships bound for Antarctica in the 20th century have changed. Students compare the features of a variety of vessels then create an annotated timeline that demonstrates how particular aspects of Antarctic ships have changed between ...

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Female emigrants bound for Australia, 1834

This hand-coloured lithograph, measuring 36.0 cm x 22.7 cm and consisting of seven panels of an original ten, depicts in cartoon form the deprivations suffered by single women migrating to Australia in the 1830s. Titled 'FEMALE EMIGRATION!', the scenes follow the story of the women leaving Britain, their rough crossing ...

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'The blowing up of the Boyd', 1889

This is an oil painting on canvas by the artists John Louis Steele and Kennett Watkins, painted in 1889. It depicts the destruction of the sailing vessel 'Boyd' by Mäori in Whangaroa harbour (far north of the North Island of New Zealand) in 1809. There are four Mäori waka (canoes) present. A waka in the foreground shows ...

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Shackleton expedition at Lyttelton Harbour, 1914

This is a black-and-white photograph showing the sailing ship 'Endurance' being loaded with ponies and sled dogs at Lyttelton (east coast of the South Island of New Zealand) for Ernest Shackleton's expedition to Antarctica. A crowd of people is aboard the ship, watching proceedings, and there are groups of people in the ...

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The 'Britannic' leaving Sydney, 1901

This is a black-and-white photograph, measuring 9.5 cm x 12 cm, of the scenes surrounding the ship 'Britannic' as it departs Circular Quay, Sydney, with Imperial troops on board. Hundreds of people have gathered to watch, with some standing on their horse-drawn vehicles to gain a better view.